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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l.) in male wistar rats

Shyam S Agrawal1*, Ashok Kumar1, Sumeet Gullaiya1, Vishal Dubey1, Ashish Nagar1, Poonam Tiwari2, Parul Dhar3 and Varun Singh1

Author Affiliations

1 Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), Pushp Vihar, Sector III, M. B. Road, New Delhi, 110017, India

2 Innovative College of Pharmacy, Plot No. 6, Knowledge Park II, Greater Noida, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India

3 College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

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DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2012, 20:94  doi:10.1186/2008-2231-20-94

Published: 13 December 2012

Abstract

Background

Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be a rich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days. Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days). Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.

Results

Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies.

Conclusions

Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects.

Keywords:
Aegle marmelos; Acrosomal; Infertility; Sperm