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Open Access Open Badges Research article

Chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol

Amol S Shete1*, Adhikrao V Yadav2 and Srinivasa M Murthy3

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Shree Santkrupa College of Pharmacy, Ghogaon, Tal. Karad Dist, Satara, MS, India

2 Gourishankar Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Limb, Satara, 415002, India

3 Vignan Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Deshmukhi, 508284, Nalgonda Dist, India

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DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2012, 20:93  doi:10.1186/2008-2231-20-93

Published: 13 December 2012


Background and the purpose of the study

Carvedilol nonselective β-adrenoreceptor blocker, chemically (±)-1-(Carbazol-4-yloxy)-3-[[2-(o-methoxypHenoxy) ethyl] amino]-2-propanol, slightly soluble in ethyl ether; and practically insoluble in water, gastric fluid (simulated, TS, pH 1.1), and intestinal fluid (simulated, TS without pancreatin, pH 7.5) Compounds with aqueous solubility less than 1% W/V often represents dissolution rate limited absorption. There is need to enhance the dissolution rate of carvedilol. The objective of our present investigation was to compare chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol.


The different formulations were prepared by different methods like solvent change approach to prepare hydrosols, solvent evaporation technique to form solid dispersions and cogrind mixtures. The prepared formulations were characterized in terms of saturation solubility, drug content, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), electron microscopy, in vitro dissolution studies and stability studies.


The practical yield in case of hydrosols was ranged from 59.76 to 92.32%. The drug content was found to uniform among the different batches of hydrosols, cogrind mixture and solid dispersions ranged from 98.24 to 99.89%. There was significant improvement in dissolution rate of carvedilol with chitosan chlorhdyrate as compare to chitosan and explanation to this behavior was found in the differences in the wetting, solubilities and swelling capacity of the chitosan and chitosan salts, chitosan chlorhydrate rapidly wet and dissolve upon its incorporation into the dissolution medium, whereas the chitosan base, less water soluble, would take more time to dissolve.


This technique is scalable and valuable in manufacturing process in future for enhancement of dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs.

Solubility; Dissolution; Carvedilol; Hydrosols; Chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate